Drugs such as mefloquine and halofantrine have been developed and registered and artemisinin derivatives developed and brought close to registration. In Africa, large-scale multi centre trials of the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bed nets have demonstrated a dramatic reduction in mortality of children under the age of 4.
These research-based results are now being translated into operational recommendations for national control programmes. Characteristic symptoms of hay fever, induced following exposure of the nasal mucosa to the allergen through inhalation, include profuse watery nasal discharge with sneezing, frequently accompanied by redness, irritated and watery eyes and headache.
The inciting allergens are often found in windborne plant structures called aeroallergens. The spores from fungi and even certain algae may persist through the year, especially under warm humid conditions; but particularly in temperate regions, wind-pollinated plants elicit symptoms during certain flowering periods. In North America there are three peaks in the pattern of seasonal rhinitis: Ragweed pollen Ambrosia predominates during this time and is the most allergenic pollen found in North America.
In tropical areas both perennial and seasonal patterns can also be observed with this disorder. Fungal spores and grass pollen are common aeroallergens, whereas those from weeds and wind-pollinated trees are of secondary importance.
However, the determination of aeroallergens in the more equatorial zones requires further study. Although the majority of plants that induce allergic rhinitis are wind-pollinated, a number of plants that are typically pollinated by animals insects, birds, bats have also been implicated. For example, old- fashioned roses, which are infrequently found in gardens today, are often heavily scented and their anthers are exposed by the loose and open form of the floral bud.
Thus their attractiveness frequently used to lead to sensitization through inhalation of the pollen and the term rose-fever or rose-cold was used to describe plant-associated rhinitis. Attacks of bronchial asthma are usually precipitated by inhalation of the specific allergen and this form of allergy often has a more chronic course than that seen in allergic rhinitis even though the eliciting agents may be the same.
Extrinsic asthma occurs typically in children and young adults and is often aggravated by emotional factors. Although not a common aeroallergen, pollen from the lodge-pole pine of Colorado Pinus contorta has also been known to cause bronchial asthma. The mechanism for induction of intrinsic asthma is somewhat more obscure and is generally found in an older age group.
The likely agents are allergic reactions to infectious materials, such as bacteria or viruses, or the inflammatory processes they elicit. Unlike extrinsic asthma antigens cannot be demonstrated and thus skin testing is of no value. The separation of purely extrinsic from intrinsic asthma can be diagnostically difficult whenever allergic phenomena are combined with infectious factors. Possibly another IgE-mediated Type I disease is the coffee bean and castor bean workers disease that is characterised by rhinitis, asthma and dermatitis following inhalation of the hapten, chlorogenic acid.
As it is widespread in plants and is concentrated in coffee beans and castor beans, chlorogenic acid may act more as a universal allergen than was first suspected. Another type of allergic respiratory condition—known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis or extrinsic allergic alveolitis—is often associated with specific professions.
In these instances, animal, vegetable or bacterial enzyme material may induce the disease. By inhalation of the enzyme of Bacillus subtilis, those who work with detergents may also develop an allergic pneumonitis. Diseases produced by inhalation of airborne algae such as Gloecapsa and chlorella, are of more general incidence, however Wood and paper mill workers may also develop bronchial asthma through sawdust inhalation of the Gymnosperms, redwood Sequoia sempervirens , western red cedar Thuja plicata , cedar of Lebanon cedrus libani and the Angiosperms, iroko or African oak Chlorophora excelsa , Nicaragua rosewood Dalbergia retusa , and other exotic woods.
The immunopathology suggests that a mixture of many types of immune or allergic reactions may be involved in extrinsic allergic alveolitis and thus is classified as Type III.
It is also possible that symptoms similar to those of allergic respiratory illness may be elicited by inhalation of airborne leaf hairs. Such a series of cases was recently reported among gardeners who had tended saplings of Oriental sycamores or the tree of Hippocrates Platanus orientalis at a medical school campus. It is interesting that, about years ago, Dioscorides AD had noted watery eyes, sneezing, an irritating sensation in the nasal passages, soreness of the throat, an irritating dry cough and other similar symptoms.
Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhosa bacteria by ingesting contaminated food or water. Symptoms are characterised by headache, nausea and loss of appetite. About 12 million people get affected by typhoid every year. Typhoid can be prevented by providing access to safe drinking water, sanitation and good hygiene. This water borne disease is caused by Entamoeba histolytica and is characterised by liquid stools with mucus and blood, hepatitis or abscess.
Man gets the infection through cut fruits, salads, vegetables, contaminated water. Trophozoites cause ulcer in the large intestine. Some amoebas reach liver through portal vein and may cause hepatitis or abscess. Intestinal and hepatic amoebiasis are the main manifestations of the disease.
The cysts can survive for 6 to 7 weeks outside the human body, if kept moist and cool. Diagnosis is based on the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in stool. The antibody of the parasite can be easily detected by Immuno-fluorescence method. Cysts can be killed in milk by pasteurisation. Malaria is caused by parasite, Plasmodium and is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. The credit of this discovery goes to Ross Kolkata in The symptoms are periodic paroxyms of fever, associated with shivering and terminating with sweating.
Fever is intermittent and occurs after 3 or 4 days. Essays on Pediatrics Diseases: Top 7 Essays on Cancer. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes.
Answer Now and help others. Here's how it works: Anybody can ask a question Anybody can answer The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Under the reproductive health care programmes, prevention, early detection and cure of STDs are given priority.
Though all persons are vulnerable to these infections, their incidences are reported to be very high among persons in the age group of 15 to 24 years. In case of doubt, one should go to a qualified doctor for early detection and proper treatment.
The causative pathogen is Treponema pallidium. The first stage of the disease has symptoms like infections and painless ulcers on the genitals, swelling of lymph glands. In the second stage there are skin lesions, rashes, hair loss, swollen joints etc.
In the later stage, chronic ulcers appear on palate, nose or lower leg. There can be paralysis, brain damage, blindness, heart trouble etc. The incubation period is 10 to 90 days. The disease is curable through appropriate antibiotics like penicillin and tetracyclin.
The causative pathogen is Neisseria gonorrhoea. The bacteria lives in genital tubes and produces pus containing discharge pain around genitalia and burning sensation during urination. Incubation period is 2 to 5 days. It can be treated with appropriate antibiotics like penicillin and ampicillin.
The causative bacterium is Haemophilus ducreyi. In this infection ulcer appears over the external genitalia which is painful and bleeding with swelling of nearby lymph nodes. It can be treated with antibiotics.
The symptoms of AIDS are continued fever, lethargy, weight loss, nausia, headache, rashes, pharyngitis etc. Due to loss of immunity, the body is unable to protect itself against any type of infection. The incubation period is 6 months to 10 years. The symptoms of the disease are fatigue, jaundice, persistent low fever, rash and abdominal pain.
At a later stage there is liver cirrhosis and possibly liver cancer, it can be dignosed by Austrelian antigen test and ELISA. The causative virus is Herpes simplex virus. In this disease there are vesiculopustular lesions followed by clusters of painful erythematous ulcers over external genitalia and perianal regions. Symptoms are more severe in females. There is fever, headache, pain, and itching, vaginal and urethral discharge with swelling of lymph nodes.
It is also an incurable STD. These are hard outgrowths developing on the outer surface of external venitalia and perianal area. In women infection may enter vagina and cervix. It spreads through sexual intercou r se with carriers of this virus.
Cryosurgery is used for removal of the warts. Chlamydiae is a bacterial class whose members are obligate intracellular pathogens. The following STDs are caused by chlamydiae.
Short Essay on Human Diseases! A disease is a condition that impairs the proper functioning of the body or of one of its part. Every living thing, both plants and animals, can succumb to disease.
Essay on Disease # 5. Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever): Characteristic symptoms of hay fever, induced following exposure of the nasal mucosa to the allergen through inhalation, include profuse watery nasal discharge with sneezing, frequently accompanied by redness, irritated and watery eyes and headache.
A disease is a condition that impairs the proper function of the body or of one of its parts. Every living thing, both plants and animals, can succumb to disease. Hundreds of different diseases exist. Each has its own particular set of symptoms and signs, clues that enable a physician to diagnose. - Disease and Pathology Lyme disease, or lyme borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease transmitted by ticks. Lyme disease is considered an emerging infectious disease because it’s incidence has .
Coronary heart disease is a serious condition caused by the build-up of fatty deposits within the walls of the vital arteries that supply blood to the heart. Coronary heart disease is the major cause of death in . Free Essay: Illness and death from infectious diseases are particularly tragic because they are preventable and treatable. Not surprisingly, the poorest and.