Energy is one of the most fundamental parts of the universe. It is essential for work, lighting our cities and powering vehicles. Energy helps to warm our homes, cook our food, play music and give pictures to our television.
Energy conservation plays a very important role because utilization of non-renewable resources that impact our environment. There are several ways that we can use to converse energy in our daily life. In other to conserve energy, human being can responsibly consume and conserve energy resources in three main steps in our daily lives. Firstly, for the sake of earths continued existence, people should take responsibility for their energy consumption.
Energy generation and environmental conservation are the twin issues arising from exploitative interaction of man with natural resources.
Report of the International Energy Agency contains a simple but remarkable statement: Now, what do mean by this? This means that conservation of a unit of energy is cheaper and environmentally more desirable than to generate an additional unit. For, it is estimated that generation of every additional kilowatt for one hour of energy requires an investment of Rs.
Excessive utilization of coal and oil for generation of electricity leads to the multiple problems of acid rain, and rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. There are also political and economic implications like the increasing tension in the Persian Gulf, which is the major petroleum exporting area, and failing international competitiveness.
All these threaten to strangle the world economy in a stagnation. Let us see how some steps taken to resolve these complex problems have tangled the issues further.
To reduce dependence on oil for generation of electricity by burning coal and oil, hydroelectric power stations and atomic energy stations were advocated. Similar strategies or mechanism can be applied to commercial buildings such as organisation building or office building etc. There is a huge potential of energy savings in buildings of an organisation of office as we have discussed in energy saving measures for domestic sector earlier. Everyone knows that saving energy is a good thing, but most people will only be motivated when we can demonstrate just how much energy they are wasting and just how much potential there is for them to improve.
Essentially you need to raise the energy awareness of all concerned in an organisation and for this; you need an energy-awareness campaign.
Now, typical preparation for an energy-awareness campaign might begin with a hunt for generic poster facts and figures and generic pictures of light switches, children hugging trees and polar bears on melting ice caps etc. But the problem with that approach is that most people have seen it all many times before and consequently they rarely stop to think about the underlying message.
The usual array of eliched poster facts and figures is not nearly as effective as targeted facts and figures that are specific to your organisation and that you easily come up with yourself. The knock-on effects of us using it e. When your concept of energy awareness is closer to home, your campaign will naturally use messages, facts and figures that are closer to home too.
The more you can relate your facts and figures to the day-to-day actions of your staff, the more likely they will be to take action. So, instead of using global statistics or natural statistics or city-level statistics in your campaign, use statistics that are directly relevant to energy consumption at your organisation. Or, even better, use statistics that are directly relevant to energy consumption in your building. Or, even better still, use statistics that are directly relevant to energy consumption on your floor of the building, or in your particular department.
Armed with this knowledge, your task of raising energy awareness amongst staff will be much easier, as you will be able to highlight the wastage that they are responsible for and encourage them with evidence of the savings that they have made. For this you need good data.
First things first, unless you have good quality energy data, you will struggle to get really useful figures. Weekly or monthly meter readings will never be able to tell you how much energy your building is using at different times throughout each day and on the different days of the week — this level of detail really is necessary to calculate the focused personalized figures that can have the biggest impact on the energy awareness of your staff.
Hopefully you will already have access to interval data such as 15 minute or half-hours data — if not, you may want to look into getting smart metering fitted in your building. The figures you need will come from analysis of your energy-consumption data.
The first thing to do is to look at your patterns of energy consumption to find energy waste. Once you have found energy waste, you should be able to quantify it in terms of how much energy is actually being wasted. Start by estimating the wasted kWh and then multiple those figures by cost-per-kWh and kg- CO 2 -per-kWh figures to get the equivalent cost and CO 2 figures or if you want to highlight waste as a percentage of some sort, simply look at the percentage differences between the kW or kWh figures from the appropriate time periods, buildings floors or departments that you want to compare.
Specific figures are generally best for raising energy awareness amongst staff. Use your imagination a little — may be look at energy consumption on weekends or during lunch hours. If your building operates continuously every day, investigate the energy consumption of different shifts. All of this information will be contained within your detailed interval energy data. You just need to extract it and present it in an accessible format. The best results by far will be achieved if you treat your energy-awareness campaign as an ongoing process.
The patterns or profiles of energy usage contained within interval energy data are great for discovering where a building is wasting energy. The fine-grained detail of interval data such as half-hourly data is key — daily, weekly or monthly data does not carry anywhere near as much information about how energy is being used.
Looking at energy profiles to find energy waste requires you to have some knowledge of the way that the building is operated. The key is to try to link the patterns of energy usage with the operations of the building.
Energy profiles show how much energy is being used at particular times-of- the-day and days-of-the-week — you want to be able to have a pretty good idea of what equipment is using that energy and why it needs to be using it at the times in question.
To make sense of the energy profiles, you need to have good idea about what goes on in the building. Not everything that goes on in the building, just the things that relate to energy consumption. Every building is different, but the following factors are commonly relevant. What are the core occupancy hours e. Are there multiple shifts e. Do people ever work on-site outside of the core occupancy hours?
Do certain staff stay on after the official closing time? Does anyone come in on weekends or holidays? Is there air conditioning? Is it used just for cooling in summer or is it used all year round e. How is the heating controlled? Is it on a timer? When is it set to switch on and off?
Are there different timer settings for weekends and holidays? This is particularly significant in cost terms because electricity usually costs several times more per kWh than gas. Air-conditioning also usually consumes a lot of electricity. It indicates that HVAC energy wastage can usually be identified from patterns of electricity consumption alone. What controls when the lights come on and off? Are they automatically controlled e.
Are there enough light-switches? For example, if one person is working late in a large open office, will they have to light the entire office just to light their desk?
Most buildings have different sets of lights for different purposes e. This could include anything from a printing room, to a fork-lift-truck charger, to specialist production-line equipment. When do they use energy? When do the processes run? When is the equipment switched on and off? Energy uses such as HVAC heating, ventilation and air-conditioning should usually be closely tied to the occupancy hours. Considerable energy is wasted if a building is heated or cooled when nobody is using it or if an entire building is heated or cooled when only a couple of rooms are in use.
Energy performance is commonly tracked on a monthly basis. These month-to-month differences make it more difficult to meaningfully compare the energy consumption of one month with that of another. However, you can effectively eliminate these differences by complying with the rules that follow:. However, using the average kW power instead takes time out of the equation and gives figures that can be compared meaningfully. However, in both cases it has an average power of 2 kW.
So, for example, a business with a Monday to Friday working week might effectively track monthly energy performance for: Accrue month-month energy-performance tracking is rarely possible without the level of detail contained within interval energy data.
The energy consumption of energy uses such as heating or air-conditioning is usually highly seasonal. Seasonal variations do not render monthly results useless, however monthly figures are still of considerable value for viewing seasonal consumption patterns. Measurement of parameters is an integral and important task in energy management.
Here is the list of some important meters and monitors you can use as home energy saving devices: A thermometer is one of the simplest and most effective home energy saving devices.
It can save energy by helping you measure the temperature of refrigerators and freezers and adjust to a more energy efficient or health-safe temperature. A thermometer can also help you find poorly insulated areas of your house. You thought your meter was just for measuring! Reading your electrical and gas meter on a regular basis and logging the results in a spreadsheet, is a great way to get a clearer picture of your energy usage.
When they spike back up, you know something new has been introduced — or some old energy wasting habit, once brought under control, is now costing you money again. Home energy saving devices such as the power cost monitor and The Energy Detective TED are electricity energy monitors for whole house energy usage, so you can watch usage change as various devices are switched on and off.
But they do not give as clear an indication of how much a particular device uses. These devices can give you an instant temperature reading for any area you point and press the trigger at. A great way to get a quick handle on where heat is escaping from your house in winter or leaking in on hot summer days. Using these meters and monitors, energy can be saved in the domestic sector. Here are some examples and areas where proper measurement of parameters using meters can save lot of energy.
If your refrigerator or freezer temperature is set too high, you can lose food to spoilage, which is a waste of the energy used to grow and transport the food to you. Leave the jar inside the refrigerator or freezer — at least one hour for the refrigerator, at least 6 hours for the freezer. Then wait a few more hours. Take a reading of the minimum and maximum and take the halfway point as the likely average temperature of the refrigerator or freezer.
If that halfway point is colder than required, turn the temperature control dial up a notch. Then reset the minimum and maximum, wait a few more hours and try again.
Use your thermometer as a home energy saving device to measure the hot water temperature coming out of your tap. Turn the hot water temperature down on your heater if the temperature is above 49C to F. If you install an insulating blanket around your hot water heater, you can use the thermometer to assess how effective the blanket is. A large difference in temperature reading between the space between the heater and the insulating blanket reading A and the outside of the insulating blanket reading B will tell you that the blanket is really helping you save.
In a properly heated room, colder sections of wall usually indicate that there is less insulation behind them. You can take readings on several windows and compare the results; lower readings on a particular window may mean that window lacks the energy efficient reflective coating of other windows in your house or if it is a double- or triple-pane window that is supposed to be filled with an insulating gas such as argon, that the insulating gas has leaked out.
Some home energy saving devices were designed for another purpose, but indirectly they help you save energy. An obvious example of an indirect home energy saving device is a dimmer switch. Here are some indirect home energy saving devices that can put a dent in your energy bill: Dimmer switches can be used for both lighting and fans. A dimmer that works with incandescent or haogen lights can also be used to lower the speed of a fan motor, if you want a little airflow out of a bathroom but not the full blast.
For fluorescent lights, make sure you use either a dimmer that is designed for them or fluorescent lights that are designed to work with an incandescent dimmer. When you put a device on a timer, you may save energy. Timer switches are light or fan switches that can either run for a range of preset times 30, 15, 10, 5 minutes for example or have a dial that can be set to any range of minutes.
This can save you not only the energy used to run the fan which is pretty minimal but the energy lost when you pump warm air outside in winter or cold air outside when the air-conditioning is on.
Energy supplies can be extended by the conservation, or planned management, of currently available resources. There are three types of energy conservation practices. The first is curtailment; doing without. For instance, cutting back on travel to reduce the amount of gasoline burned.
Energy conservation is a vital element in the planning and management of energy sources. This approach not only necessitates the need to save energy for future use but derives efficient approaches of avoiding wasteful use of energy through the provision of effective solutions towards the energy crisis.
Energy conservation is a very important part of energy planning and its management. It not only saves energy resources for future, avoids wasteful utilisation of energy, provides solution to energy crisis and ensures higher per capita availability/ consumption but controls environmental degradation and pollution. - Household Energy Usage and Conservation Household energy conservation is a very practical and realistic approach to conserving energy within our society. US households consume a tremendous amount of natural gas as well as electric energy.
Energy Conservation: It is the practice of reducing the quantity of energy used. It may be attained through efficient energy use; in this case, energy use is decreased at the same time getting a same outcome as a result, or by reduced consumption of energy services. Essay # 7. Energy Conservation Process/Activities for a Building: In the previous section, we have seen the energy conservation needs and various strategies which can be applied to achieve energy savings in domestic sector. As we know in the domestic sector buildings are involved.