However, I would like you to explain more about quantitative methods. But methodology is how to collect data for a given problem. Methodology of analysis in PhD projects Oscar Eybers. Methodology is much broader than you have indicated. Thank you for your explanation, Deborah. But what is a theoretical framework then?
How is it presented in a thesis? Hi Tracey, when designing a research project one of the first tasks to be undertaken is to consider what theories underpin the phenomena that you plan to investigate.
A theoretical framework describes the process and outcome of grouping together related themes that frame the central topic. I recommend reading chapter three of Research Design: A theoretical framework is part of your methodology — that is, considering what approaches and research methods are appropriate for your research project in terms of answering your research questions.
Now all the other things I've been reading about the two make sense! My methodology involves dramaturgy and the method to be used after the data is collected is narrative.
It needs to work, thanks for the insight. I hope to find the Students' Guide to Methods and Methodology in the library. I tutor two graduate students and your information has been most informative. Thank you very much Deborah, with your specification on method and methodology, I can differentiate them now as well explaining them clearly in my research and to others who are interested in research.
Dear Deborah, Thanks, this article has clarified my thoughts around these two confusing terms. In conversation with the Troika Part 1 Wayne Barry. I would like to know about conceptual frame work, how is it involved in research? Hi Jospeh, here is a PowerPoint to help you: Thank you so much Deborah for giving such a wonderful way of differenciating methods and methodoligy.
Thank you for your clear explanation. I do have a chapter on on this but it's at Masters level. Thanks for your post…it has helped me though i still need more examples of methods and methodology.
Thank you very much for your clear explanation on the difference between methods and methodology. This is very helpful. I really needed something practical and to the point. Though I was thinking along the same lines, this post just gave me the reassurance that I needed. Hi Deborah, thanks this is very useful! However, when we are doing our PhD, for instance we have four sub research questions, So it means that each of them will have their own methodology and methods, and then we also will have one GRAND methodology for our MAIN research questions.
Hi Annisa, There is one methodology that is applied to the entire research project — not one for each research question. When examining methodology you look at the project as a whole. You have just enlightened me no end!! Hi Rowley, A big congrats for your return to academia and becoming a PhD student.
Thanks for explaining this better than what i have so far found. What I have gathered is method is the way you conduct the research and methodology is why you chose that method.
There could be other alternatives too. Could you give some other example as well because I saw two questions which leave me more mixed up:. Hi Piu, spot on regarding the simple difference between methods and methodology. With regards to your two questions, the same principles apply. Why choose a particular reserch method? The answer should be because it is the most effective method to answer the research quetions and it is appropriate for the participants.
So you would need to give your reasons for choosing focus groups over one-to-one interviews. Question 2 merely asks you to expand your answer by elaborating on your methodologies. In other words, how and why you have designed the whole research project in a particualr way. So I am an undergrad nursing student trying to explain methodology used and compare 2 studies qualitative and quantitative. Would the methodologies be the theories and theorists that the researcher has used to choose the design and method of collecting their data?
Methodology — The process of fully interrogating the values and assumptions that influence the study. For more information about the values and assumptions that influence your research see http: Gabriel, this is very nicely described. You are totally correct in your advice on the two being needing to be thought of and understood at the onset of a study.
In the Stanley Milgram Experiment , the null hypothesis was that the personality determined whether a person would hurt another person, while the research hypothesis was that the role, instructions and orders were much more important in determining whether people would hurt others. A variable is something that changes. It changes according to different factors. Some variables change easily, like the stock-exchange value, while other variables are almost constant, like the name of someone.
Researchers are often seeking to measure variables. The variable can be a number, a name, or anything where the value can change. An example of a variable is temperature. The temperature varies according to other variable and factors. You can measure different temperature inside and outside. If it is a sunny day, chances are that the temperature will be higher than if it's cloudy.
Another thing that can make the temperature change is whether something has been done to manipulate the temperature, like lighting a fire in the chimney. In research, you typically define variables according to what you're measuring. The independent variable is the variable which the researcher would like to measure the cause , while the dependent variable is the effect or assumed effect , dependent on the independent variable. These variables are often stated in experimental research , in a hypothesis , e.
In explorative research methodology, e. They might not be stated because the researcher does not have a clear idea yet on what is really going on. Confounding variables are variables with a significant effect on the dependent variable that the researcher failed to control or eliminate - sometimes because the researcher is not aware of the effect of the confounding variable.
The key is to identify possible confounding variables and somehow try to eliminate or control them. Operationalization is to take a fuzzy concept conceptual variables , such as ' helping behavior ', and try to measure it by specific observations, e. The selection of the research method is crucial for what conclusions you can make about a phenomenon. It affects what you can say about the cause and factors influencing the phenomenon. It is also important to choose a research method which is within the limits of what the researcher can do.
Time, money, feasibility, ethics and availability to measure the phenomenon correctly are examples of issues constraining the research. Choosing the scientific measurements are also crucial for getting the correct conclusion. Some measurements might not reflect the real world, because they do not measure the phenomenon as it should. To test a hypothesis , quantitative research uses significance tests to determine which hypothesis is right. The significance test can show whether the null hypothesis is more likely correct than the research hypothesis.
In other fields of study, which do not always have the luxury of definable and quantifiable variables - you need to use different research methods.
These should attempt to fit all of the definitions of repeatability or falsifiability , although this is not always feasible. Opinion based research methods generally involve designing an experiment and collecting quantitative data. For this type of research, the measurements are usually arbitrary, following the ordinal or interval type.
Questionnaires are an effective way of quantifying data from a sample group, and testing emotions or preferences. This method is very cheap and easy, where budget is a problem, and gives an element of scale to opinion and emotion. These figures are arbitrary, but at least give a directional method of measuring intensity. By definition, this experiment method must be used where emotions or behaviors are measured, as there is no other way of defining the variables.
Whilst not as robust as experimental research , the methods can be replicated and the results falsified. Observational research is a group of different research methods where researchers try to observe a phenomenon without interfering too much. Observational research methods, such as the case study , are probably the furthest removed from the established scientific method.
Observational research tends to use nominal or ordinal scales of measurement. Observational research often has no clearly defined research problem , and questions may arise during the course of the study. Observation is heavily used in social sciences, behavioral studies and anthropology, as a way of studying a group without affecting their behavior. Whilst the experiment cannot be replicated or falsified , it still offers unique insights, and will advance human knowledge.
Case studies are often used as a pre-cursor to more rigorous methods, and avoid the problem of the experiment environment affecting the behavior of an organism.
The methods section describes actions to be taken to investigate a research problem and the rationale for the application of specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information applied to understanding the problem, thereby, allowing the reader to critically evaluate a study’s overall validity and reliability.
Difference Between Research Methods and Research Methodology - Research methods are the means of conducting a research. Research methodology is the science.
Research Methodology Defined. A research method is a systematic plan for conducting research. Sociologists draw on a variety of both qualitative and quantitative research methods, including. Research methods can be used alone to solve a problem, or explore a question as part of a piece of work. They can also be a key part of writing a thesis or dissertation. For more about this, see our section on Writing a Dissertation, and particularly Writing Your Methodology.
Experimental Research Methods. The first method is the straightforward experiment, involving the standard practice of manipulating quantitative, independent variables to generate statistically analyzable data. Generally, the system of scientific measurements is interval or ratio based. When we talk about ‘scientific research methods’, this is what . There are several important aspects to research methodology. This is a summary of the key concepts in scientific research and an attempt to erase some common misconceptions in science. This article is a part of the guide.