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# Research Designs

❶Quantitative methods are an integral component of the five angles of analysis fostered by the data percolation methodology, [7] which also includes qualitative methods, reviews of the literature including scholarly , interviews with experts and computer simulation, and which forms an extension of data triangulation.

Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Want the full version to study at home, take to school or just scribble on? Whether you are an academic novice, or you simply want to brush up your skills, this book will take your academic writing skills to the next level.

Leave this field blank: Statistical methods are used extensively within fields such as economics, social sciences and biology. Quantitative research using statistical methods starts with the collection of data, based on the hypothesis or theory.

Usually a big sample of data is collected — this would require verification, validation and recording before the analysis can take place. Causal relationships are studied by manipulating factors thought to influence the phenomena of interest while controlling other variables relevant to the experimental outcomes.

In the field of health, for example, researchers might measure and study the relationship between dietary intake and measurable physiological effects such as weight loss, controlling for other key variables such as exercise. Quantitatively based opinion surveys are widely used in the media, with statistics such as the proportion of respondents in favor of a position commonly reported. In opinion surveys, respondents are asked a set of structured questions and their responses are tabulated.

In the field of climate science, researchers compile and compare statistics such as temperature or atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. Empirical relationships and associations are also frequently studied by using some form of general linear model , non-linear model, or by using factor analysis.

A fundamental principle in quantitative research is that correlation does not imply causation , although some such as Clive Granger suggest that a series of correlations can imply a degree of causality.

This principle follows from the fact that it is always possible a spurious relationship exists for variables between which covariance is found in some degree. Associations may be examined between any combination of continuous and categorical variables using methods of statistics. Views regarding the role of measurement in quantitative research are somewhat divergent. Measurement is often regarded as being only a means by which observations are expressed numerically in order to investigate causal relations or associations.

However, it has been argued that measurement often plays a more important role in quantitative research. This is because accepting a theory based on results of quantitative data could prove to be a natural phenomenon. He argued that such abnormalities are interesting when done during the process of obtaining data, as seen below:. In classical physics, the theory and definitions which underpin measurement are generally deterministic in nature.

In contrast, probabilistic measurement models known as the Rasch model and Item response theory models are generally employed in the social sciences. Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique for measuring social and psychological attributes and phenomena.

This field is central to much quantitative research that is undertaken within the social sciences. Quantitative research may involve the use of proxies as stand-ins for other quantities that cannot be directly measured. Tree-ring width, for example, is considered a reliable proxy of ambient environmental conditions such as the warmth of growing seasons or amount of rainfall.

Although scientists cannot directly measure the temperature of past years, tree-ring width and other climate proxies have been used to provide a semi-quantitative record of average temperature in the Northern Hemisphere back to A.

When used in this way, the proxy record tree ring width, say only reconstructs a certain amount of the variance of the original record. The effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are collected and analyzed for a relationship. When deciding on the appropriate approach, the Decision Tree from Ebling Library may be helpful.

The following video, Quantitative Research Designs, further describes the differences between quantitative research approaches and offers tips on how to decide on methodology.

Planning the Methodology — The Quantitative Pathway — The following link provides a description of the four types of quantitative approaches and examples of each. Quantitative Design — The following resource describes quantitative research approaches and exmaples.

Choosing an appropriate study design — Below is a link to a presentation that describes the factors to consider when choosing the appropriate approach for quantitative research. This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Quantitative Approaches In this module, the four approaches to quantitative research are described and examples are provided.

List and explain the four approaches to quantitative research.

## Main Topics

quantitative research, different types and assumptions of quantitative analysis tools, it is even more important to use the right research design and data collection instruments. However, the use of statistics to analyze quantitative methods have some notable advantages, they also have.

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There are four main types of quantitative research designs: descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental and experimental. The differences between the four types primarily relates to the degree the researcher designs for control of the variables in the experiment.

Now, I will talk about the major types of quantitative research: experimental and nonexperimental research. Because the best way to make the two groups similar in the above research design is to randomly assign the participants to the experimental and control groups, let’s assume that. Nursing Resources: Types of Research within Qualitative and Quantitative Home Toggle Dropdown Definitions of.