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❶Associations between adult attachment style and health risk behaviors in an adult female primary care population.

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A Simple Model of Infant-Mother Attachment

A psychological study of the strange situation. The attachment system in adolescence. Cassidy J, Shaver PR, editors. Theory, research, and clinical applications. Stress, sensitive periods and maturational events in adolescent depression. Quality of early maternal-child relationship and risk of adolescent obesity. Attachment security and obesity in US preschool aged children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine.

Does infant carrying promote attachment? An experimental study of the effects of increased physical contact on the development of attachment. Attachment and Human Development. Gene-environment interaction of the dopamine D4 receptor DRD4 and observed maternal insensitivity predicting externalizing behavior in preschoolers.

Genetic vulnerability or differential susceptibility in child development: The case of attachment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood.

The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love. Differential susceptibility to rearing influence: An evolutionary hypothesis and some evidence. Origins of the social mind: Evolutionary psychology and child development. Belsky J, Fearon R. Infant-mother attachment security, contextual risk, and early development: Prevention and intervention programs for supporting early attachment security.

Theory, research, intervention, and policy. Enhancing attachment organization among maltreated children: Results of a randomized clinical trial.

Social factors in the development of early executive functioning: A closer look at the caregiving environment. Bridging the attachment transmission gap: The role of maternal mind-mindedness. International Journal of Behavioral Development. The importance of shared environment in mother-infant attachment security: Their character and home-life. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Maternal care and mental health. The making and breaking of affectional bonds.

Boyce W, Ellis BJ. Biological sensitivity to context: An evolutionary-developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Pouring new wine into old bottles: The social self as internal working model.

Gunnar M, Sroufe LA, editors. Minnesota Symposia in Child Psychology: Self processes in development. The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth.

Fathers in attachment theory and research: Early Child Development and Care. Bretherton I, Munholland KA. Internal working models in attachment relationships. The Handbook of attachment: A cognitive approach to child abuse prevention. Journal of Family Psychology.

Practical aspects of conducting large-scale functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in children. Journal of Child Neurology. Child development at the intersection of emotion and cognition. American Psychological Association; Influences of attachment relationships. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Intervention with parents and infants: An emotion regulation approach.

New directions in attachment research. Child-parent attachment and response to threat: A move from the level of representation. Mikulincer M, Shaver PR, editors. Nature and development of social connections: From brain to group. An attachment perspective on incarcerated parents and their children.

Examination of the precursors of infant attachment security: Implications for early intervention and intervention research. Enhancing infant attachment security: An examination of treatment efficacy and differential susceptibility. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Maternal warmth buffers the effects of low early-life socioeconomic status on proinflammatory signaling in adulthood.

Underpinnings of aging and age- related diseases. The emergence of developmental psychopathology. Fostering secure attachment in infants in maltreating families through preventive interventions. Toward a neuroscience of attachment. Adult attachment and the brain. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. Social regulation of the neural response to threat. Preschool teacher attachment, school readiness and risk of learning difficulties. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.

Marital conflict and child adjustment: An emotional security hypothesis. Autonomic and brain electrical activity in securely and insecurely attached infants of depressed mothers. Infant Behavior and Development.

Developmental traumatology part I: Dyadic distress management predicts subsequent security of attachment. Denison S, Xu F. Integrating physical constraints in statistical inference by month-old infants. A meta-analysis on parental antecedents of infant attachment.

Attachment-based family therapy for adolescents with suicidal ideation: A randomized controlled trial. Intervening in adolescent problem behavior: A family- centered approach. The affective organization of parenting: Adaptive and maladaptative processes.

Developing evidence-based interventions for foster children: An example of a randomized clinical trial with infants and toddlers. Journal of Social Issues. School readiness and later achievement. Attachment and the processing of social information across the life span: Attachment and peer relations in adolescence. Adult attachment style and parental responsiveness during a stressful event. Remembering, repeating, and working through: Lessons from attachment-based intervention.

Osofsky J, Fitzgerald H, editors. Infant mental health in groups at high risk. Attachment figures activate a safety signal-related neural region and reduce pain experience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Differential susceptibility to the environment: The significance of insecure attachment and disorganization in the development of children s externalizing behavior: Infant—mother attachment and the growth of externalizing problems across the primary school years.

In search of shared and nonshared environmental factors in security of attachment: A behavior-genetic study of the association between sensitivity and attachment security.

Touch attenuates infants' physiological reactivity to stress. A review of recent research. The handbook of touch: Neuroscience, behavioral, and health perspectives. Interpersonal and genetic origins of adult attachment styles: A longitudinal study from infancy to early adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Adult Attachment Interview protocol. University of California; Berkeley: Infant language learning when multiple generalizations are possible. Infants use rational decision criteria for choosing among model of their input. Attachment, caregiving, and volunteering: Placing volunteerism in an attachment-theoretical framework.

Attachment avoidance predicts inflammatory responses to marital conflict. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. Attachment security and adjustment to school in middle childhood. Groh A, Roisman GI.

Adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant vocalizations: The role of secure base script knowledge. The significance of insecure and disorganized attachment for children's internalizing symptoms: A wider view of attachment and exploration: The influence of mothers and fathers on the development of psychological security from infancy to young adulthood. Gunnar M, Quevedo K. The neurobiology of stress and development.

Annual Review of Psychology. Stress neurobiology and developmental psychopathology. Cicchetti D, Cohen DJ, editors. Developmental psychopathology, Vol 2: Sensitive periods for adolescent alcohol use initiation: Predicting the lifetime occurrence and chronicity of alcohol problems in adulthood.

Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Infants consider both the sample and the sampling process in inductive generalization. Young infants prefer prosocial to antisocial others. How infants and toddlers react to antisocial others. The maternal affectional system of rhesus monkeys.

Maternal behavior in mammals. Salivary cortisol in maltreated children: Evidence of relations between neuroendocrine activity and social competence. Hidden regulators in attachment, separation, and loss. Psychobiological roots of early attachment. Current Directions in Psychological Science. Changing toddlers' and Preschoolers' attachment classifications: The circle of security intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

Attachment relationships and health behavior: The mediational role of self-esteem. A developmental psychopathology approach to the prevention of mental health disorders.

Developmental psychopathology, Vol 1: A longitudinal study of the relation between representations of attachment in childhood and cognitive functioning in childhood and adolescence. Attachment anxiety is linked to alterations in cortisol production and cellular immunity. Measurement and meaning of salivary cortisol: A focus on health and disease in children. The International Journal on the Biology of Stress.

Couple and family therapy: Soothing the threatened brain: Leveraging contact comfort with Emotionally Focused Therapy. Evidence for infants' internal working models of attachment.

At the intersection of social and cognitive development: Internal working models of attachment in infancy. Parents' self-reported attachment styles and their parenting behaviors, emotions, and cognitions: Models of dysfunction in developmental psychopathology.

Individual differences in empathy among preschoolers: Relation to attachment history. New Directions for Child Development. Effects of attachment-based interventions on maternal sensitivity and infant attachment: Differential susceptibility of highly reactive infants. Attachment in late adolescence: Working models, affect regulation, and representations of self and others. Interplay of genes and early mother-child relationship in the development of self-regulation from toddler to preschool age.

Prediction of children's referral to mental health and special education services from earlier adjustment. Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment.

Statistical learning across development: Dopamine D4 receptor DRD4 gene polymorphism is associated with attachment disorganization in infants. Maternal sensitivity during distressing tasks: A unique predictor of attachment security. Identifying components of maternal sensitivity to infant distress: The role of maternal emotional competencies. Mothers' emotional reactions to crying pose risk for subsequent attachment insecurity. Attachment linked predictors of women's emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress.

Preventive intervention and outcome with anxiously attached dyads. Maternal care, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress. Mediated paths to overreactive discipline: Mothers' experienced emotion, appraisals, and physiological responses.

Mothers' emotion dynamics and their relations with harsh and lax discipline: Microsocial time series analyses. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. Attachment, depression, and cortisol: Deviant patterns in insecure-resistant and disorganized infants. Assessing mediated models of family change in response to infant home visiting: A two-phase longitudinal analysis. Infant Mental Health Journal. Unresolved states of mind, anomalous parental behavior, and disorganized attachment: A review and meta-analysis of a transmission gap.

Adjustment of children and youth in military families: Cross-cultural studies of attachment organization: Recent studies, changing methodologies, and the concept of conditional strategies.

Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. Attachment concerns of mothers as manifested in parental, spousal, and friendship relationships.

Maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress as predictors of infant-mother attachment security. Associations between adult attachment ratings and health conditions: Evidence from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

Maternal care, gene expression, and the transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity across generations. Annual Review of Neuroscience.

Attachment theory and intergroup bias: Evidence that priming the secure base schema attenuates negative reactions to out-groups. Structure, dynamics, and change. Attachment, caregiving, and altruism: Boosting attachment security increases compassion and helping. Can security-enhancing interventions overcome psychological barriers to responsiveness in couple relationships? What's inside the minds of securely and insecurely attached people?

The secure-base script and its associations with attachment-style dimensions. Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: Moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms.

Helping military children cope with parental deployment: Role of attachment theory and recommendations for mental health clinicians and counselors. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health. Adult attachment style and stress as risk factors for early maternal sensitivity and negativity.

Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders. The new look of behavioral genetics in developmental psychopathology: Gene-environment interplay in antisocial behaviors. Simultaneous fMRI during linked social interactions. Efficacy of a home-visiting intervention aimed at improving maternal sensitivity, child attachment, and behavioral outcomes for maltreated children: A randomized control trial.

Behavioral inhibition and stress reactivity: The moderating role of attachment security. The effects of infant child care on infant-mother attachment security: Olson K, Dweck C. A blueprint for social cognitive development. Perspectives on Psychological Science.

Parents' insightfulness regarding their young children's internal worlds. Handbook of infant mental health. Attachment security and child's empathy: The mediating role of emotion regulation. When a parent goes to war: Effects of parental deployment on very young children and implications for intervention. The original research establishing the connection between quality of attachment and infant mental health was based on careful observation of infant behavior in a variety of ecologically valid settings.

They asserted that frightening or frightened behavior in the parent—the hallmark of caregiving behaviors linked to disorganized behavior and increased risk for mental health disturbances in the child—stemmed from the parent's unresolved state of mind about her own traumatic childhood experiences.

Thus, an attachment-based understanding of young children's symptoms holds that frightening or frightened parental behavior is the mechanism responsible for transmitting from parent to child incoherent and contradictory states of mind regarding attachment.

These contradictory states of mind, in turn, are manifested in the child by disorganized behavior as the child attempts to resolve the paradox of fearing the person from whom protection is sought.

Lyons-Ruth and colleagues elaborated these ideas in a way that is particularly relevant to the child's direct exposure to traumatic events such as domestic violence. They propose a relationship diathesis model that focuses on the modulation of fear and places it in a relational context. In the relationship diathesis model, vulnerability to stress-related dysfunction is determined by at least three factors: Children's emotional and behavioral symptoms emerge when the stressor is too overwhelming or when the attachment relationship is unable to modulate the child's overwhelming affective response to the stressor.

The authors proposed that parents with unresolved fear dating back to childhood traumatic experiences have difficulty helping their children modulate strong emotions such as fear because the parents curtail their conscious attention to the child's fear signals in order to not reevoke their own early traumatic responses.

Fear signals left unattended are not modulated in the relationship, leaving children alone with their own unresolved traumatic experiences. Attachment theory thus predicts two explanations for young children's symptoms.

The second, explicated in the relationship diathesis model, predicts that the parent's own experiences of childhood trauma interfere with the parent's capacity to soothe the child in the face of present stress, leading to emotional and behavioral dysfunction in the child.

The relationship diathesis model provides a bridge to trauma theory, which offers its own explanation for children's symptoms after a stressful event.

Fagundes, in Advances in Child Development and Behavior , Attachment theory has provided a powerful and comprehensive model of the influence of intimate relationships on social and psychological functioning over the life course, and it is currently the preeminent theory underlying research on child—caregiver relationships and adult romantic relationships.

Yet research on adult attachment has developed and evolved quite separately from research on infant—child attachment, despite their common heritage in Bowlby's seminal work. To some extent, this can be attributed to straightforward disciplinary boundaries: Research on infant—child attachment is typically conducted by developmental psychologists, for whom the identification of adult manifestations of the parent—child processes they study may not be a primary topic of interest.

Research on adult attachment is typically conducted by social and personality psychologists, who may possess a basic familiarity with the purported developmental origins of attachment styles, but who are typically far more interested in probing their implications for adult functioning. Even the aforementioned longitudinal studies, which have followed individuals from infancy to adulthood, have focused on basic questions of continuity in attachment security from childhood to adulthood, and do not permit close investigation of developmental changes in attachment-related processes.

Perhaps the most vivid manifestation of this blind spot in attachment research is the continued underinvestigation of attachment processes during adolescence rather than infancy, childhood, and adulthood. As reviewed by Allen and Land , adolescence is a critically important period of life from the lens of attachment theory.

Adolescents must also balance the normative developmental press for differentiation from parents with continued needs for parental support and assistance, especially in light of the increasingly complex social, emotional, and psychological challenges that accompany this stage of life. Finally, adolescents' increasing interest and participation in romantic and sexual relationships lays the groundwork for the signature developmental transformation in the attachment system: We propose that the best way to integrate the growing body of research on adolescent attachment processes with the existing infant-child and adult traditions is to focus more systematically on the affect- and emotion-regulation functions of attachment.

Affect and emotion regulation are critically implicated in both the normative and individual difference components of attachment theory , and have been found to mediate and moderate attachment processes in both adulthood and infancy-childhood. In the next section, we provide an overview of affect and emotion regulation and their associations with attachment processes.

We show that at all stages of life, affect and emotion regulation remain primary functions of the attachment system, although the specific processes through which they are effected change over time. We then turn to our own research on linkages among attachment, affect regulation, and well-being during early adolescence.

Over time, experiences and expectations established in these early attachment relationships become guidelines for how information about important relationships established and maintained across the lifespan is to be encoded, processed, interpreted, stored in memory, and acted on e. Attachment theory describes a biological system with a survival function that is activated under pressure, separation, and danger Bowlby, An activated attachment system elicits attachment behavior in children approaching, seeking contact, and maintaining contact , which in turn leads to caregiving behavior by adults.

Repeated sequences of attachment signals and corresponding caregiving behavior are internalized and later on become mentally accessible. Internalized attachment experiences called IWMs of attachment serve as generalized expectations and organizing intrapsychic structures.

Therefore, attachment experiences develop into psychic structures with lifelong consequences. If caregivers primarily act sensitively with responsive availability, the child will most likely internalize the experience that his or her need for protection and comfort has been adequately satisfied secure IWM. Some children experience that their attachment signals are not or not adequately answered by their caregivers. This can lead to a reduced attachment signal insecure—avoidant IWM or attachment behavior that is ambivalent insecure—ambivalent IWM due to an insecurity about the availability of the caregiver Bowlby, Furthermore, a secure IWM entails unconscious beliefs that, in principle, the individual is capable to create a feeling of safety in different social contexts, either intrapsychic or interpersonal.

Therefore, securely attached individuals have a high flexibility in social interactions, whereas insecure IWMs lead to rigid interpersonal behavior. If strategies to deal with attachment-related stress fail because the attachment figure itself acts as the source of fear e.

A breakdown of regulation strategies can be observed in infants and has been described as disorganized attachment or unresolved trauma in adults, respectively. Attachment theory , specifically as it applies to adolescence and early adulthood, can also provide a useful framework from which to consider the transition to adulthood for individuals with ASD and their families. Attachment theory has become one of the most prominent ways to describe parent—child relationships, particularly during infancy and early childhood.

This bond can vary in quality, contingent on the quality of care that the child has received Ainsworth et al. Bowlby began his journey to attachment theory through research he conducted on child delinquents and hospitalized children.

Bowlby believed that children have an innate need to develop a close relationship with one main figure, usually the mother. When this does not occur, it has negative consequences on development, causing a decline in intelligence, depression, aggression, delinquency, and affectionless psychopathy a situation in which one is not concerned about the feelings of others [2]. Following the above conclusions regarding maternal deprivation, Bowlby sought to develop a theory which would support and explain his results.

He felt that existing theories on attachment from psychoanalytic and behavioral fields were detached from reality and not up to date, thus he began reading into and corresponding with current researchers in the fields of biology and ethology. These results stand in contrast to classic approaches to attachment which believed that the goal of attachment was the fulfillment of needs, particularly feeding.

Newborn infants know to act in such a way that attracts adults, such as crying, smiling, cooing, and making eye contact. Although not attached to their mothers yet, they are soothed by the presence of others. Attachment in making 6 weeks- 6 to 8 months: Infants begins to develop a sense of trust in their mothers, in that they can depend on her in times of need.

They are soothed more quickly by their mother, and smile more often next to her.

Adult Attachment Theory and Research

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Prospective research is needed examining the extent to which adult attachment styles predict both parenting behaviors and infant attachment (see Mayseless, Sharabany, & Sagi, , and Volling, Notaro, & Larsen, , for mixed evidence concerning parents' adult attachment style as a predictor of infant attachment).

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The attachment behavior system is an important concept in attachment theory because it provides the conceptual linkage between ethological models of human development and modern theories on emotion regulation and personality.

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For example, the research influenced the theoretical work of John Bowlby, the most important psychologist in attachment theory. It could also be seen a vital in convincing people about the importance of emotional care in . Attachment theory is centered on the emotional bonds between people and suggests that our earliest attachments can leave a lasting mark on our lives.

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Attachment theory and research: Resurrection of the psychodynamic approach to personality Basic concepts in attachment theory and researchAccording to Bowlby for empirically examining such propositions and producing a solid body of empirical evidence that contributes to a resurrection of the psychodynamic approach to personality. Attachment Theory (Bowlby) 2 years ago • Child Development Theories, Learning Theories & Models • 1 Summary: Attachment theory emphasizes the importance of a secure and trusting mother-infant bond on development and well-being.