Thus, there is an understanding that elements of morality such as regard for life and human welfare transcend particular cultures and societies and are to be upheld…… [Read More]. Desire and Pleasure for Sigmund. However, I do not agree with either philosopher on their narrow view of the pleasure principle itself.
Pleasure is much more than the basic physical sensation brought about by the senses. Love is a sensation that could bring the pleasure of performing a service that pleases someone else, although not necessarily the self. Self-sacrifice in this sense is about more than simply repressing physical pleasure. Indeed, self-sacrifice as the basis of love rather than fear can bring a sense of pleasure.
Seeing the world only in terms of fear, pleasure and its excess is somewhat, as said above, narrow. Furthermore I do not believe that the complexity of the human psyche can be reduced to a few simple regulatory paradigms.
Pleasure is therefore much more complex and difficult to define than the above philosophers…… [Read More]. Armand Nicholi Freud and God. Armand Nicholi's The Question of God: It places in counterpoint the thought and writings of two men who never met, spoke, or engaged in any important way with each other's writings -- in fact they had little in common apart from both living in Great Britain at the same time for a period of about fourteen months.
These men are the Oxford don, C. Lewis, an authority on Renaissance literature and a novelist and Christian polemicist, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, still famous as a doctor and theoretician who posited the existence of such concepts as the Oedipus complex, the unconscious, and polymorphous perversity. Freud never read a word that C. Lewis wrote, and while it is extremely unlikely that Lewis could have escaped exposure to the widely disseminated ideas of…… [Read More].
Cognitive Psychology Comparison of Freud. However, just like Maslow, Rogers is just as interested in describing the healthy person. Positive regard is self-esteem, self-worth, and a positive self-image which are achieved through experiencing the positive regard that others show us over our years of growing up; without this, we feel small and helpless. Under Roger's theory, this "small" and "helplessness" is exactly what John is feeling, most likely as a result of the manner in which he was treated growing up.
He is feeling anxious and lacks self-discipline because he does not like himself personally, as he feels that he does not meet up to the standards set for him by others. Under Roger's theory, John's actions demonstrate that he does not have a positive image of himself, a result of low self-esteem inflicted on him over the years of receiving negative feedback while he was growing up. Freud's theory is also a clinical theory,…… [Read More]. Beyond the Contributions of Sigmund.
Traveling worldwide, Rogers participated in negotiating sessions involving disputes between Protestants and Catholics, religious, racial, and ethnic differences in South Africa, racial disputes in the United States, and consumers and health care professionals in several jurisdictions.
He was widely recognized as being successful at resolving serious differences in most of these difference scenarios. While Rogers was an extroverted, personable individual, Carl Jung was a highly introverted individual who preferred a solitary life. By his own admission, Jung was happiest when he was left alone with his thoughts Wehr, Jung academic background was founded in the field of medicine. While attending medical school, Jung developed an interest in spirituality and it was this interest that eventually led to his becoming interested in psychiatry as a specialty.
As part of his graduation…… [Read More]. Sigmund Freud and Jean Martin Charcot Psychology refers to the applied and academic discipline that includes the scientific study of behaviors and mental functions. Anyone who has studied psychology has the immediate understanding groups and individuals through the general principles establish by renowned professionals in this field.
Psychologists attempt to understand the role played by mental functions in social behaviors and individuals whilst exploring the biological and psychological process that underlie behaviors and cognitive functions. This study endeavors to explain the important contributions made by two psychologists namely Sigmund Feud and Jean Martin Charcot, and the similarities and contrasts of their contributions. Sigmund Freud and his contributions He was a neurologist based in Australia and lived between and He was the founder of psychoanalysis.
He graduated from the University of Vienna as a qualified doctor and carried out extensive research into aphasia, cerebral palsy and microscopic neuroanatomical. Belief Doubt and the Modern Mind. From the philosophical discourses proposed by Sigmund Freud, Bertrand Russell, and Friedrich Nietzsche, it becomes evident that there no longer exists subsistence to religious idols and personalities, which had been the prevalent ideology and philosophy among societies in human history's early history until the 18th century.
In the texts that follow, this paper discusses and analyzes the philosophies of the three philosophers cited earlier. A philosophy of life" by Sigmund Freud, this paper argues that the philosophers'…… [Read More]. Plato vs Freud on Eros and Sexuality. Freud on eros and sexuality Plato's concept of love mandates two rectifications.
Both of these rectifications are necessary in order for us to appreciate the relevance of Plato's theory of love to contemporary problems.
The first depiction comports with the non-sexual aspect of the loving relationship, because Plato's theory of love indeed includes sex. The second depiction, or rectification, is related inextricably to the heterosexual aspect of the loving relationship. Without a doubt, Plato considers love between people solely as a homosexual phenomenon, but his explication of sex comprises both heterosexual and homosexual relationships.
The sociological setting of Platonism is all one needs to understand it: In Fifth Century Athens, apart from some outstanding exceptions, like Pericles' legendary love for Aspasia, men only married for reproductive needs and ends, yet reserved the term 'love' and the passionate activity of sexual love only for homosexual relationships.
However, nothing in…… [Read More]. Freud and Society Sigmund Freud has had a profound influence on our understanding of contemporary society. It can be argued that Freud's theories and insights have also had a direct effect on shaping modern society itself and determining the way we see ourselves.
Freud's theories are also the object of heated debate and criticism and his views of the dynamics of the individual in society are not always agreed upon.
While it is undeniable that, to large extent, "Our notions of identity, memory, childhood, sexuality and, most generally, of meaning have been shaped in relation to, and often in opposition to, Freud's work" Roth. In terms of society and sociological analysis the most significant aspect of the idea of the unconscious is the theory of…… [Read More]. Freud in Lolita The narrator of Vladimir Nabakov's novel Lolita, Professor Humbert, begins his story by recounting his childhood and the early stages of his sexual life, and particularly his experiences with his first love or at least, his first obsession , a young girl named Annabel Leigh.
Humbert recalls their sexual mis adventures together in some detail, and his description of this childhood romance closely echoes Sigmund Freud's formulation of the "infantile sexuality" in his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. However, Humbert and Annabel are thwarted each time they attempt a coupling, and Annabel dies soon afterwards.
This creates a rift in the young Humbert such that he is unable to appreciate girls or women until he meets Lolita, further echoing another of Freud's theories, this time of the oppositional instincts elucidated in The Ego and the Id. By analyzing Humbert's experiences with Annabel and the effects of her…… [Read More]. Comparing Two Theories of Human Behavior Psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud , and linguistic anthropologist Michel Foucault , came from two different European cities Freud from Vienna; Foucault from Paris lived at different times, and developed entirely different theories of human behavior.
Freud believed human drives and impulses originate from the unconscious; and external social repression of unconscious impulses early messages about "right" and "wrong" from parents, teachers, other authority figures, and from society give way to internal formation of the id unconscious desire ; the ego a person's sense of who he or she is ; and the superego an internalized parent constantly reminding the individual, based on early socialization, of what is the "right" thing to do, instead of the "wrong" thing, in terms of society's expectations of the individual.
Freud also believed, in…… [Read More]. Berger's "Sacred Canopy," and Freud's "The Future of an illusion" are both secular theories of religion. Berger's theory is based on a sociological understanding of human nature, while Freud's analysis is based largely upon his psychoanalytical theories. Both theories feel that the human fear of the terror of nature and death are at the root of the phenomenon of religion.
In "The Sacred canopy: His theory of religion is based on the premise that "every human society is an enterprise of world-building" Berger. As such, Berger explains that our perceived world is constantly being created through what he refers to as a dialectical process.
This process has three key aspects: In externalization, our thoughts become translated into the products we make and the actions that we take. When the products…… [Read More]. Using Psychology at Work. Freud was one of the early pioneers of psychoanalytic theory, which is still prevalent today and is associated with a psychodynamic perspective and its presence in contemporary organizations.
There is a distinctive way in which psychoanalytic theory -- and many of the concepts advanced by Freud -- can influence functional cultural identity.
By extension, there are a number of different ways cultural identity can pertain to a leader's influence on the perception of cultural identity and on organizational and individual performance. Perhaps the core notion of psychoanalytic theory is that a person's past plays a substantial role in his or her present. The clinician utilizing this theory attempts to identify key elements in a person's past that are contributing to myriad manifestations in his or her present life, and change them…… [Read More].
Employees Training and Development Plan. Freud and Erikson Theory Compare and Contrast Freud and Erikson Theory This essay begins by discussing Psychoanalytic Theory proposed by Sigmund Freud; the theory portrays that human behaviour is the result of conflict between the biological drives that develop slowly from childhood and play a significant part in determining a person's character.
After a short review of the Psychoanalytic theory and evaluating it against modern psychoanalytic perspectives, the study will then cover a quite different theory i.
Erikson's theory that reduces the significance of biological contributions. Erikson's theory explains challenges or issues that people face in the modern world. The fact that words such as "inner-space," "identity crisis" and "lifespan" have gained prominence in spoken and written language is testament to Erikson Theory's relevance.
The Erikson's theory also has…… [Read More]. Social Psychology and the Perspectives. Therefore, the person who chooses to suspend his interests to comply with those artificial externally-imposed social values for the benefit of others will ultimately always suffer disadvantage because others cannot be counted upon to do so consistently and in a meaningful way, at least not beyond the ability of the state to control and ensure.
To Freud, modern civilization provides various tangible benefits to the individual but only at a tremendous cost. While living in society and with the benefits of government protection against the uncontrolled expression of the selfish will of others is a benefit, the fact that our goals and values, and the component elements of our psychological personas are determined and shaped to such a great extent by external society generates much if not all of the psychological pain and trauma experienced by individuals.
Personal Response and Conclusion There is substantial value as well as inherent weaknesses…… [Read More]. Sexuality can be discussed and analyzed through concepts made in other works of the author.
These essays revolve around the idea of sexual perversions and why they develop in the first place. In the second essay, Freud talks about the various psychosocial stages of development. The third essay revolves around the genital stage and how a person is more included to sexuality when he or she begins puberty.
Freud has stated that normal sexual activity between a man and a woman and is only limited to sexual intercourse. Anything apart from that is considered a perversion or a deviation from normal human sexual activity. Conclusion derived from this the theory of sexuality and other Freudian concepts is that: Abnormal sexual perversions develop in a person due to psychosocial conflict in life and these perversions are a threat to stability of civilization.
Freud insists on the notion that sexuality is a…… [Read More]. Timeline Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified that Freud was the first theorist to formalize the process of analysis, a practice that is not used in all modalities of psychology today.
Analysis, specifically the psychoanalysis so often parodied in the cartoon of the tormented patient lying on the couch before the bearded quasi-Freudian father figure of the therapist, presupposes in its theoretical structure the existence of an subconscious element to the human mind, in other words, that how humans think they immediately perceive the world is not all that there is to human consciousness. Freud used techniques such as free association to elicit reasons for his patient's behaviors.
Freud began his treatment upon hysterics. He grew to believe that unresolved childhood traumas rather than physiological causes were at…… [Read More]. Id Ego and Superego Id. The ego does not have any concept of right or wrong but it understands that an action is good when it achieves the desired end of satisfying the need without harming the id or itself. The superego The superego is the last component of personality to develop in a person.
Sigmund Freud argues that the superego begins to appear in a person at the age of five years during the phallic stage of psychosocial development. It is the personality aspect that holds all of the internalized moral ideals and standards that a person acquires from both their parents and the society.
It provides the person with the sense of right and wrong and provides guidelines upon which a person can make judgment. He argues that the superego has two parts. The first is the ego ideal which includes the standards and rules for good behavior. The ideal is the picture…… [Read More]. Social Psychology and the Beliefs.
These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological…… [Read More].
Alfred Adler Was One of the First. Alfred Adler was one of the first supporters of Sigmund Freud's theories of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the eralyth Century, although the two psychiatrists had a particularly harsh falling out in and never reconciled.
Adler's basic theories were so distinctive from Freud's that any attempt to combine them would have been impossible, given that he denied the existence of the id, ego and superego. In general, Adler minimized the role of genetics, sexuality and unconscious drives in human personality formation is favor of conscious goal-setting that overcame the childhood sense of dependence, powerlessness and inferiority and created a mature, competent and self-realized adult.
Moreover, humans were social creatures whose purpose in life was not merely to accumulate wealth, power and status, but to improve the condition of society and the world as best they could. Alderian psychology was always a relatively small school compared to the Freudians and behaviorists,…… [Read More]. Freudian Perspective of Human Psychology. More specifically, children whose transition through the Oedipal or Electra Complex and those whose parents neglected to fulfill their other crucial emotional needs during their developmental years retain long- lasting negative psychological attachments to those areas in which their needs where unfulfilled.
Alternatively, they may retain a fundamental psychological orientation that corresponds to the precise stage of development i. Most significantly, whereas most children experience the psychological "loss" of the parent through this process, the manner in which parents interact with their children and the specific experiences of the child during that stage determines many aspects of the psychological issues that develop within the individual in connection with subsequent romantic urges and relationships McWilliams, Similarly, Freud proposed that the other stages of infancy such as the oral phase and anal phase…… [Read More].
Id Ego and Super-Ego of. The ego also understands that submitting to the id can lead to self-destructive behavior. The ego is also subject to "defense mechanisms" that will help it mediate between the id and the super-ego.
One defense mechanism present in Bundy's behavior is displacement. The conscious is an internalization of punishments and warnings. The ego ideal derives from rewards and positive models presented to the child. The conscious and the superego communicate their requirements to the ego with feelings like pride, shame, and guilt. The id, ego and superego lead to the fact that, as if acquired, that a new set of needs and wishes are of social, not biological, at this time.
Anxiety sits at the center of powerful forces: When conflicting demands are made upon the ego, the feeling is called anxiety.
It serves as a signal to the ego that its survival as a whole is in jeopardy. There are three different types of anxiety: Realistic anxiety is considered fear. Moral anxiety is a feeling that comes from the outer world, although could be considered shame, guilt and the fear of punishment.
Neurotic anxiety is the fear of being overwhelmed by the impulses of the id. This is the anxiety that intrigued Freud the most. The Oedipal crisis is named after the ancient Greek story of King Oedipus, who inadvertently killed his father and married his mother.
The theory works in this manner: We want her affection, her caresses and her in a broadly sexual way. Dad is the enemy. At this point in his life, the by had recognized that that he differs from girls as there is a difference in hair length and clothing style. From his perspective there is one major difference, he has a penis and girls do not.
He attempts to be more like him, or more like a man. The boy will then enter adolescences and then the world of heterosexuality. Freud also believes that women experience the same. The only thing more common that blatant admiration for Freud is the equally blind hatred that people feel towards him. Out of the theories previously discussed, the Oedipal complex and the associated ideas behind castration anxiety and penis envy is the least favorite.
It has been discovered that these rules mostly apply in world in which the families are dysfunctional and are not working in the means intended. These circumstances include parents unhappy with each other that may use their children against each other, or in instances in which girls are ridiculed or forced to think that there are not an equal to men.
Ultimately, these circumstances apply in dysfunctional situations. If the Oedipal complex was viewed in a metaphoric and not a literal fashion the concepts could be considered useful. Children love their parents.
Free Freud papers, essays, and research papers. Weakness in Sigmound Freud’s Theories - This essay will attempt to highlight and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the three main theories of counselling within the module covered this term.
Freud's book covered three main areas: sexual perversions; childhood sexuality; and puberty. The Sexual Aberrations. Freud began his first essay, on "The Sexual Aberrations", by distinguishing between the sexual object and the sexual aim — noting that deviations from the norm could occur with respect to both.
Freud was excellent at research and was an excellent observer of human conditions. Freud is a name that you can find regarding psychology today and will be a part of psychology in the future. Sigmund Freud likes to identify the theory of the mind with an image of an iceberg. Freud sees that the unconscious, id part is the bottom part of the iceberg, below the sea hidden away and we are not always aware of it however, it is still there.
- Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis The aim of this essay is to clarify the basic principles of Freud’s theories and to raise the main issues. It is important to be clear about the meanings of certain terms that you may come across and throughout the handout you will find footnotes clarifying certain terms. Sigmund Freud * Born: May 06, in Freiberg, Germany * Died: September 23, in London, England * Nationality: Austrian * Occupation: Psychoanalyst - (May 6) Sigismund Freud was born - Freud began studying medicine at the University of Vienna.