It is important to correctly reference any ideas that are drawn from others to avoid plagiarism, whether they are direct quotes or reworded concepts.
The Harvard referencing system is very commonly used. It ensures that referencing is done properly so that writers can show they are not using other authors' ideas as their own. Write the quote within quotation marks. If you are quoting someone else, you must write it correctly word for word. Place the author's name at the end of the quote followed by a comma followed by the date and the page number of the publication -- surround all this with brackets.
In this example, only the part within quotation marks is the author's words, the part before this is an introduction by the essay writer. If you refer to the author before the quote, you only need brackets around the date and page number. Write two or three authors names, e.
Morrison and Jones Write Morrison et al Write page numbers separated by a dash if the quote goes onto a second page, e. Paraphrase an authors words; this does not require speech marks. The ideas used from the source must be written in your own words but they are referenced in the same way. Make sure there is a period after each section of the citations.
A period should always end the citation. APA requires citations inside parentheses in the text of an essay, compiling them in an alphabetical References list at the end of a document. While you're writing an essay, it's important to cite information so that you avoid plagiarism a form of cheating.
Place a parenthetical citation at the end of every sentence or group of sentences if you're using the same source for multiple consecutive sentences containing information you didn't know before doing research. An in-text citation using APA will simply have the author last name or title if no author followed by the year it was published. No comma between name and year. Richards Richards is the author last name, and is the year. If you have an author name or title if no author but no page number, simply use author last name or title.
This is common when citing websites. APA document formatting is very important. APA papers are divided up into 4 sections: Write down copyright information as you go for every piece of research you glean from. Write it down for every source you look at with a note to jog your memory--you'll be surprised how many ideas you start to paraphrase, unable to remember where you got that idea.
To form APA reference page citations, you will need such information as author name s , date published, website URL, date you accessed the website, title of work, and so on. The list of references should be alphabetized and set to hanging indent, just like MLA style format. For example, the format for an APA reference of a scholarly journal article is as follows: Author last name, First initial.
Article or chapter title. Journal or book title, Issue number , page number range. Capital letter also for subtitle. The format for an APA website reference looks like: In Title of webpage or larger document or book chapter or section number. Retrieved from URL address. Double-space your document, and title the references page "References" at the top-center of the page.
Put the page number all the way to the right, and a shortened version of the title of your paper all the way to the left in all capital letters. Only capitalize the first word of a journal article title, unless the title contains a proper noun called sentence case.
Titles of books should preserve the published capitalization. Capitalize the city of publication, and use correct state abbreviations for states. Also capitalize the name of the publisher and end the reference with a period.
The title of larger works, whether a book, journal, website, or magazine, is in italics or underlined if handwriting , as is the issue number that appears right after the title.
Titles for shorter works like articles and chapters should not have any indicative punctuation in an APA entry.
CMOS or Chicago utilizes two different of reference styles: Notes and Bibliography, and Author Date. For Notes and Bibliography, you will use a superscript at the instance of each quote in the text with a corresponding footnote at the end of the page.
All footnotes are compiled into endnotes at the end of the work, on the bibliography page. The full version of each parenthetical citation is listed alphabetically on the references page. Simon Simon is the author last name, and is the year.
You will need a citation directly after every sentence or group of sentences if you're using the same source for multiple consecutive sentences containing information you didn't think of yourself. As you do research for your essay, take note of all bibliographic information that you see.
If using a book, write down all pertinent information found on the copyright page, including the name of the publisher and the city and year of publication. Publication date is often at the bottom of webpages. Use Notes and Bibliography if instructed. The Notes and Bibliography NB method is preferred by scholars in the humanities literature, history, arts. NB is conducive to recording a wide range of sources in detail, which the Author Date system doesn't allow for.
Leave 2 blank lines between this title and the first entry, and one blank line between entries. Notes and Bibliography style uses footnotes for page endings and endnotes for chapter endings. The bibliography page will be an alphabetized list of all sources in hanging indent.
An example format for a book is as follows: An example format for a chapter in a print scholarly journal is as follows: Author last name, first name. For an online scholarly journal article, tack on the following at the end: An example format for a website is as follows: When there is no known author, the entry should begin with the title of the document, whether it's a webpage, chapter, article, and so on.
When there are multiple authors, the first listed author appears last name, first name, so that the citation is alphabetized by this author's last name. Subsequent authors are listed by first name, like this: Always end a citation with a period. Use Author Date if instructed. The Author Date style is preferred by those in the sciences, i. Author Date is a more concise style of documentation. Leave 2 blank lines between this title and the first entry, and 1 blank line between entries.
Reference Page. Every essay that uses research and outside information must also include a reference page where the sources are listed. The reference page is a separate page that comes at the end of the essay and lists your sources in alphabetical order by last name of the author.
To cite an essay is probably the most difficult thing from the point of view of style: all these periods, commas, different fonts can scare any talented student, even if the essay is well-written. But do not worry: we picked out the basic rules and described difference between such common styles as MLA and APA.
This brief study guide aims to help you to understand why you should include references to the information sources that you use to underpin your writing. It explains the main principles of accurately referencing such sources in your work. Create a reference list at the end of your essay in the following format; Name, date, publication title (in italics), place of publication, publisher. Example: Morrison, N. (), The Art of Service Improvement: A Friendly Approach, 2nd edition, London: Routledge.
Ways to Incorporate References in an Essay. Just as how there are examples on how to start essays, there are also a number of ways on how you can list down your references. The incorporation of references in your essay will depend on the format that you will use. Referencing the Essay Referencing is a system that allows you to acknowledge the contributions and work of others in your writing by citing your sources. A feature of academic writing is that it contains references to the words, information and ideas of others.