A collection of organ systems is an organism. The composition of an argument — especially when we think of it in terms of an extended written arugment — very much echo these biological levels of organization. When considering how the table of contents of your thesis is going to look like, perhaps think of it this way.
The following are some examples of theses organizations, represented by central arguments and table of contents:. The same principle can be applied to temporal comparisons or between concepts and events — essentially anything that has a clear and definitive conceptual quality.
It will argue that a particular set of domestic and international factors interplayed to create the OAU in As a result of historical divisions from the colonial age, the paper contends that the OAU suffered from regional and historic divisions from its inception.
This thesis follows a slightly more complex strategy. The writer began by laying a conceptual foundation with her initial chapter — a solid idea if one is tackling a particularly conceptually messy phenomena that is, of course, not to say that nuclear non-proliferation efforts are not conceptually messy. Notice, however, the fact while the writer divided the sections by time-line, she wrote the subsections by mixing both particular events and theoretical discussions.
Once again, go with what best and most effectively presents your argument. Exploring the Effectiveness of Counterterrorism in Spain. As opposed to the earlier two examples, this thesis specifically raises and examines the effectiveness of a self-conceived or observed theory.
To this end, the writer looks first at presenting and arguing for all aspects of the theory, which can be seen with the first chapter. It is worth noting that many qualifications goes into his discussion, explaining just about every major choice he makes with respect to his model. This work also has the added complication of being a predominantly quantitative analysis. As such, it is proper that a good number of sections were dedicated to exposition, analysis, and discussion of the techniques that he used, including even the software involved.
The meat of the research here lies in the third and fourth chapters, which examines policies and tactics respectively. In similar theses, these would be the case study analysis sections, where the theory proposed earlier is applied and interacted with studied events or occurrences.
Skip to content [toc] Research Papers Social science research papers combine the presentation of both argument and evidence in response to a core question. This is just one. Introduction State the core question; Tell the reader the significance of the question; Provide a brief version of your answer to the question; Provide an overview of the rest of the paper. Case Study or Case Studies Apply the theoretical framework to one or more cases.
Policy Papers One purpose of a policy paper is to make a prescription for future policies. Even if you are uncertain about the answer, it is better to argue that the available information is too thin or too contradictory to justify taking a position than to duck the question altogether. This is not to say that there is always a single right answer to every political-science question.
But even when intelligent, informed people disagree, they must focus on the question at hand in order to advance the debate.
Be sure to follow any instructions on the assignment, e. Make an argument, supported by evidence and logic. It need not be an extreme or all-or-nothing argument; you should qualify your bottom line as you see fit see 1. Make sure that your claims and support for them are clear in your own mind, and articulate them clearly to the reader. Explain why the evidence and reasons you present support your thesis, and do this for your sub-claims as well.
Find and use relevant research when required. If the assignment asks you to do research, find sources or other information that is as directly relevant and useful as possible for your argument. Minimize unsupported opinion and arguments from authority. An argument from authority is a claim that something is true because a particular expert says so. A variation on this is relying on your own undefended opinions: Sometimes we have to rely on experts' opinions on esoteric matters, but it is always better to provide supporting evidence and logic yourself.
Address counter-arguments and counter-examples. Put yourself in the shoes of a skeptical reader and ask yourself how they might object to your argument and evidence. If these objections can be refuted, do so; otherwise qualify your position e. These citations should always include an unambiguous source reference and page number or numbers , unless you are referring to the general findings of an entire book or article. This includes required readings in your courses.
Often, a single citation at the end of a paragraph is sufficient, if the material from that paragraph can be traced to a single source. Citing your sources demonstrates the work you have put into researching your paper, distinguishes your ideas from those of others, informs readers where to find out more about particular points, and strengthens your argument by providing authoritative sources for your factual claims.
Cite only the sources you yourself have consulted. Citing the source of your source, as if you had consulted it yourself, is misleading and deceptive, unless you explicitly acknowledge it e. For further suggestions on citations, including formatting tips and a discussion of plagiarism, see the Dartmouth website on sources: You must put in quotes, or in indented single-spaced format, any text found in other sources, and the text must be followed immediately by a citation to the source.
Of course, you may not submit all or part of a paper written by someone else as if it were your own work. To avoid plagiarism, be careful in your note taking and writing to mark all ideas, detailed facts, and exact wording taken from other sources, so that you can properly cite and quote them in your paper.
The Political Science Dept. In some cases, plagiarism and other forms of cheating is punishable by dismissal from the college. Thus do not waste space on material that does not advance your main argument, such as: Organize your major points in logical order.
Papers ten pages or longer should be divided by section headings, which tell the reader where you are going, making the argument easier to understand. Political science papers are of many types such as political science essay, political science term paper, political science research paper, political science thesis and political science dissertation.
While attempting to write political science papers one should be well read on the subject, the topic must be well researched and should include relevant information needed for the paper writing. Students who are associated with the discipline of political science are assigned to do series of home assignments.
They face problems while writing political science papers because teachers associate a number of hopes to the students and their essays. With increase in the level of education, the hopes and expectations also increase. Students do not have expertise and skill in academic writing.
They make mistakes and errors to which, they gain less marks in their political science papers. Usually, the time allocated for the submission of student papers is unmanageable. You can hear a lot of questions from students in regards to this problem: Students have to search all the relevant information. They have to think over the topic. They have to collect relevant data in terms of inclusion in the papers. All this activity looks small if just stated but if it is done, it takes a lot of time in its completion.
They face huge problems in terms of time management. Political science essay is written for a number of topics such as social condition of society and role of politics, political development, risks in politics and many other topics. To nail such a paper, the students need to follow a strategic approach, which is capable to lead them towards success and accomplishment. Political science essay needs to be written concisely with the usage of the word of essay.
Essays are comparatively shorter. One of this variety should be written with a clear and informative introduction and a summarized conclusion. A political science essay is incomplete with a full-fledged introduction and a descriptive conclusion.
If you need online help from professional writers — feel free to contact CustomWritings. Unlike a conventional essay, political science research paper needs to be written in explanatory manner. The reason of why it needs to be written with description is that it covers a research and it is done with consideration towards many aspects of the topic incorporating a lot of information.
Research Paper Topics in General Approaches in Political Science cover the history of the discipline (e.g., the behavioral revolution, the rise of neoinstitutionalism, and the postbehavioral critique), as well as several general approaches in political science (such as rational choice, political psychology, and principal–agent theory).
* To write a sophisticated paper, you should conduct your research in light of the important theories of political science. You might ask a question and offer an answer that either confirms or disconfirms a theory in the discipline.
Writing political science research papers Your instructors use research paper assignments as a means of assessing your ability to understand a complex problem in the field, to develop a perspective on this problem, and to make a persuasive argument in favor of your perspective. Practical summaries, recipes for success, worksheets, exercises, and a series of handy checklists make this a must-have supplement for any writing-intensive political science course. In this Third Edition, updated sample research topics come from American government, gender studies, comparative politics, and international relations.
Survey research is a major tool for bringing facts—data—to bear on political science theories. The way in which survey researchers do so, by collecting data from the few to generalize to the many, is once again undergoing a period of profound change. Term Papers on Political Science. Political science is the field of education that studies governments in all their forms and aspects. Many individuals prepare term papers on political science which is no doubt a tricky task to do.