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List of psychological research methods

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❶The open access movement assumes that all information generally deemed useful should be free and belongs to a "public domain", that of "humanity".

Research Methods

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Experimental Research Methods

Researchers can also use a null hypothesis, which states no relationship or difference between the independent or dependent variables. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.

There are various history guidelines that are commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis. This includes lower criticism and sensual criticism. Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts are part of most formal historical research: The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines.

As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis. It is based on artistic practices, methods, and criticality. Through presented documentation, the insights gained shall be placed in a context. According to artist Hakan Topal , in artistic research, "perhaps more so than other disciplines, intuition is utilized as a method to identify a wide range of new and unexpected productive modalities".

This may be factual, historical, or background research. Background research could include, for example, geographical or procedural research. The Society for Artistic Research SAR publishes the triannual Journal for Artistic Research JAR , [22] [23] an international, online, open access , and peer-reviewed journal for the identification, publication, and dissemination of artistic research and its methodologies, from all arts disciplines and it runs the Research Catalogue RC , [24] [25] [26] a searchable, documentary database of artistic research, to which anyone can contribute.

Patricia Leavy addresses eight arts-based research ABR genres: Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research. The major steps in conducting research are: The steps generally represent the overall process; however, they should be viewed as an ever-changing iterative process rather than a fixed set of steps.

Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question. The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis. The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested.

The researcher s collects data to test the hypothesis. The researcher s then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research. The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated. At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.

Rudolph Rummel says, " It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results. Plato in Meno talks about an inherent difficulty, if not a paradox, of doing research that can be paraphrased in the following way, "If you know what you're searching for, why do you search for it?!

The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure:. There are two major types of empirical research design: Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:.

Social media posts are used for qualitative research. The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. If the research question is about people, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments this is the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment.

If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants. In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher s may collect primary or secondary data.

Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible. For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights.

Big data has brought big impacts on research methods so that now many researchers do not put much effort into data collection; furthermore, methods to analyze easily available huge amounts of data have also been developed. Non-empirical theoretical research is an approach that involves the development of theory as opposed to using observation and experimentation.

As such, non-empirical research seeks solutions to problems using existing knowledge as its source. This, however, does not mean that new ideas and innovations cannot be found within the pool of existing and established knowledge. Non-empirical research is not an absolute alternative to empirical research because they may be used together to strengthen a research approach.

Neither one is less effective than the other since they have their particular purpose in science. Typically empirical research produces observations that need to be explained; then theoretical research tries to explain them, and in so doing generates empirically testable hypotheses; these hypotheses are then tested empirically, giving more observations that may need further explanation; and so on.

A simple example of a non-empirical task is the prototyping of a new drug using a differentiated application of existing knowledge; another is the development of a business process in the form of a flow chart and texts where all the ingredients are from established knowledge. Much of cosmological research is theoretical in nature. Mathematics research does not rely on externally available data; rather, it seeks to prove theorems about mathematical objects.

Research ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving research, including scientific research. These principles include deontology , consequentialism , virtue ethics and value ethics.

Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation , such as: Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research. The key agreement here is the Declaration of Helsinki. The Nuremberg Code is a former agreement, but with many still important notes. Research in the social sciences presents a different set of issues than those in medical research [44] and can involve issues of researcher and participant safety, empowerment and access to justice.

When research involves human subjects, obtaining informed consent from them is essential. In many disciplines, Western methods of conducting research are predominant. The increasing participation of indigenous peoples as researchers has brought increased attention to the lacuna in culturally-sensitive methods of data collection.

Non-Western methods of data collection may not be the most accurate or relevant for research on non-Western societies. Periphery scholars face the challenges of exclusion and linguicism in research and academic publication. As the great majority of mainstream academic journals are written in English, multilingual periphery scholars often must translate their work to be accepted to elite Western-dominated journals.

Peer review is a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility.

In academia, scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Usually, the peer review process involves experts in the same field who are consulted by editors to give a review of the scholarly works produced by a colleague of theirs from an unbiased and impartial point of view, and this is usually done free of charge. The tradition of peer reviews being done for free has however brought many pitfalls which are also indicative of why most peer reviewers decline many invitations to review.

The open access movement assumes that all information generally deemed useful should be free and belongs to a "public domain", that of "humanity". For instance, most indigenous communities consider that access to certain information proper to the group should be determined by relationships.

There is alleged to be a double standard in the Western knowledge system. On the one hand, "digital right management" used to restrict access to personal information on social networking platforms is celebrated as a protection of privacy, while simultaneously when similar functions are utilised by cultural groups i. Even though Western dominance seems to be prominent in research, some scholars, such as Simon Marginson, argue for "the need [for] a plural university world".

This could be due to changes in funding for research both in the East and the West. Focussed on emphasizing educational achievement, East Asian cultures, mainly in China and South Korea, have encouraged the increase of funding for research expansion. In several national and private academic systems, the professionalisation of research has resulted in formal job titles. In present-day Russia, the former Soviet Union and in some post-Soviet states the term researcher Russian: The term is also sometimes translated as research fellow , research associate , etc.

Academic publishing is a system that is necessary for academic scholars to peer review the work and make it available for a wider audience.

The system varies widely by field and is also always changing, if often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form. There is also a large body of research that exists in either a thesis or dissertation form. These forms of research can be found in databases explicitly for theses and dissertations. In publishing, STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine. Most established academic fields have their own scientific journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields.

The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields, from the print to the electronic format. A study suggests that researchers should not give great consideration to findings that are not replicated frequently. Since about the early s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. Presently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access.

Most funding for scientific research comes from three major sources: These are managed primarily through universities and in some cases through military contractors.

Many senior researchers such as group leaders spend a significant amount of their time applying for grants for research funds. These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research but also as a source of merit. The Social Psychology Network provides a comprehensive list of U. Government and private foundation funding sources. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the search for knowledge. For other uses, see Research disambiguation. For other uses, see Researcher disambiguation.

For Wikipedia's policy against directly including in articles the results of editor-conducted research, see Wikipedia: Original research redirects here. For the Wikipedia policy, see Wikipedia: This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. It is used to solve a problem by adding to the field of application of a discipline. Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake.

The goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. It focuses on analysis and solving social and real life problems.

This research is generally conducted on a large scale basis and is expensive. Research is done by industry apex body for sorting out problems faced by all the companies. It is usually a decision making dilemma or it is a need to tackle a particular business situation. The cause of the problem can be any one of the following:. This type of research is done by an individual company for the problem faced by it. Marketing research and market research are the applied research. In short, the main aim of problem solving research is to discover some solution for some pressing practical problem.

This research is based on numeric figures or numbers. Quantitative research aim to measure the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to project for future period.

The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships.

Statistics is the most widely used branch of mathematics in quantitative research. Statistical methods are used extensively with in fields such as economics and commerce. In sum, the research using the normative approach conducts why may be called quantitative research as the inferences from it are largely based on quantitative data. Moreover, objectivity is the primary guard so that the research may be replicated by others, if necessary. Qualitative research presents non-quantitative type of analysis.

Qualitative research is collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Qualitative research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, metaphors, and description of things.

Qualitative research is much more subjective and uses very different methods of collecting information,mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups.

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Business research methods can be defined as “a systematic ad scientific procedure of data collection, compilation, analysis, interpretation, and implication pertaining to any business problem”[1]. Types of research methods can be classified into several categories according to the nature and.

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Opinion based research methods generally involve designing an experiment and collecting quantitative data. For this type of research, the measurements are usually arbitrary, following the ordinal or interval type.

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Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound -- they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect. There are three main types of descriptive methods: observational methods, case-study methods and survey methods. Research can be classified in many different ways on the basis of the methodology of research, the knowledge it creates, the user group, the research problem it investigates etc. This research is conducted largely for the enhancement of knowledge, and is research which does not have immediate.

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General Format of a Research Publication Background of the Problem (ending with a problem statement) — Why is this important to study? What . Types of Research Methods Adapted from Edvantia SBR Rating for Technical Assistance Programs and Services form () and Carter McNamara Overview of Methods to Collect Information handout.